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Skyros has been inhabited since the Neolithic period ( 5500 – 2800 B.C ) as proved by findings in various areas on the island. It was a very prosperus city during the copper period ( 2800 – 1900 B.C ). Skyros was important during the geometric and archaic period. In 475 B.C the island was conquered by the Athenians and in 323 – 322 B.C. by the Macedonians. In 197 B.C. it was again conquered, this time by the Romans, who were ousted and taken over by the Byzantines.

In various times Skyros has had various names, which, in most cases were derived by its morphology, the societies, and the nature of Skyros. It was once called Aegivotos ( because of the many goats lived on the island ), Anemoessa ( because of the winds ), Pelasgia as the Pelasgians once lived here, Dolopia island of Dolopians, Pelagia because it was in the middle of the sea, Skyros because of the porous stone was mined in its mines, and many more names that are mentioned by various scholars and geographers during different periods of time.

Skyros was mentioned in the prehistoric Greek mythology, while its presence was evident throughout the entire course of Greek history.
The great heroes that are connected with Skyros and mythology are Theseus, Lycomedes, Achilles, and his son Neoptolemos.
Theseus despite his feats, was never accepted by the Athenians and not seen as one of them, finally managed to take his throne. As he was a foreigner, he decided to return to his ancestral home and claim his rightful share of his father's Aegeas, estate.

When he arrived in Skyros, Lycomedes was the king of the island, and straight away treated him as a threat to his throne. This was the reason he decided to eliminate him. So as myth has it, one of the greatest heroes met his tragic end to Skyros.

But in Lycomedes's palace lived also another hero, Achilles, who was hidden here by his mother Thetis. Thetis knew that if her son was sailing to fight in Troy he would also suffer a tragic end, and so she asked from Lycomedes to hide him. Living in the palace, Achilles fell in love with Deidamea, daughter of the king. The seed of their love was their son Pyrros. The person who tricked and unravels Achilles was Odysseus, who took Achilles with him to Troy, so history was written as we know it.

After Achilles's death, his son Pyrros, at the early age of 12, went to fight to Troy, were Odysseus was involved again, to the newcomer in Troy, as according the oracle, to conquer Pergama ( the acropolis of Troy ), the presence of a Pelides was needed. In this case, this was Achilles's son. The boy fought as a hero like his father and for that reason he was called Neoptolemos ( meaning young in the war ).

The first inhabitants of Greece were the Pelasgians, to be followed by the Carians, Lelegians, Dryopians and Dolopians. The Pelasgians started the city's fortification by erecting the gigantic walls, which were reinforced by the island's later tribes.
Skyros was ruled by the Athenians and remained in Athenian rule for 389 years, apart small periods. In the meantime, it also fell under different rulers such as Persians, Athenians and Macedonians until 197 B.C. when it became Roman possession.

The Roman occupation was followed by the Byzantine ruling, and Skyros became a part of the empire. In the 2nd century AD, Skyros was introduced to the Christian religion and very soon the island had its own spiritual leader.

In 1204 Constantinople was conquered by the Crusaders, and it was then that the start of the empire's divination (dividing) between the Franc king Bonifatius, the Momherat and the doge of Venice. Skyros passed to the Gizi brothers, as well as Skiathos, Skopelos and Mykonos and became the alternate possession of the Franks and the Venetians.

In 1538 Skyros was under the rule of the Ottomans, but had many privileges and the fact that on the island the Turkish army forces or Turkish governors didn't stay for long period of time, gave a feeling of freedom to the Skyrian people.
During the Independence War of 1821, the great national revolution against the Turkish ruling, Skyros was an important and great supporter of the idea. The island contributed in financial ways and also in people, by sending it's excellent sailors to the national navy, offering shelter to war leaders, as well as offering refuge to thousands refugees from cities around Greece.

Today the tradition, art and customs of Skyros indicate it's ancient roots, while in the museums the facts and monuments of its great past can be found for all who are interested.